Połaniec is located in the eastern section of the Połaniec subsidence basin, a part of the bigger Sandomierz Basin. The Vistula River constitutes its eastern boundary line, while in the north and west it borders on the Golejów Forest. Its first records date from the 11th century.
Szydłów was a settlement situated close to the trade route running along the Vistula River. It was mentioned in the historical records for the first time in1191. Due to its convenient location and historical developments, Szydłów prospered and received its municipal rights from king Władysław I Łokietek in 1329.